background participants

Participant 104

On this page, you will find information about a UDN participant.

Sharing information on this website is not a requirement of UDN participation. Only descriptions about participants who give explicit consent will appear here. While these participant pages are helpful to understand our participants’ stories, they do not begin to describe their diagnostic odysseys. A special thank you goes out to our participants and their families for sharing their experiences.


Male, age 7 with global developmental delay, abnormal muscle contractions (dystonia), repetitive behaviors (stereotypy) and decreased tear secretion and sweating

Date of Report

Jan 11, 2019


At 6 months, the participant’s parents noticed that he was not meeting his developmental milestones. Soon after, he was noticed to have abnormal muscle contractions (dystonia) and seizure-like symptoms. Currently, the participant does not walk and is non-verbal with limited receptive language. He experiences sleep issues and has repetitive behaviors (stereotypy) and inappropriate laughter.

The participant’s body also has difficulty regulating itself (autonomic dysfunction). For example, he has decreased tear secretion (decreased lacrimation), decreased sweating, and constipation. However, he can regulate his own body temperature.

Symptoms / Signs
  • Global developmental delay
  • Abnormal muscle contractions (dystonia)
  • Repetitive behaviors (stereotypy)
  • Inappropriate laughter
  • Brain disease (encephalopathy)
  • Small head size (microcephaly)
  • Decreased tear secretion (decreased lacrimation)
  • Decreased sweating due to an inability to regulate the body (autonomic dysfunction)
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Low glucose level in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (hypoglycorrhachia)
  • Constipation
Current Treatments
  • Neurontin – sleep disturbance
  • Occupational, speech and physical therapy
  • Topamax – epilepsy
Prior Treatments
  • Acetazolamide, clonidine, gabapentin, ketogenic diet, levocarnitine, triheptanonin – neurodevelopmental symptoms
Considered treatments
Previously Considered Diagnoses
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • GLUT1 deficiency
  • Metabolic condition
  • Microdeletion/duplication disorder
Other Photographs
Genetic Variants of Interest

If this participant sounds like you or someone you know, please contact us!


The information provided here is based on individual patient experiences. This information is not meant to substitute for advice of a qualified health care provider. Please do not use this information to diagnose or develop a treatment plan for a health problem or disease without consulting a qualified health care provider.

Any mention of products or services is not meant as a recommendation of the products or services. Please discuss any options with a qualified health care provider.

Developments in medical research may impact the information that appears here. No assurance can be given that the information in this site will include the most recent findings or developments.

The use of any information provided on this site is solely at your own risk.