background participants

Participant 131

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Sharing information on this website is not a requirement of UDN participation. Only descriptions about participants who give explicit consent will appear here. While these participant pages are helpful to understand our participants’ stories, they do not begin to describe their diagnostic odysseys. A special thank you goes out to our participants and their families for sharing their experiences.


Male, age 14 with gross motor and language delay, borderline intellectual disability, and damage to the optic nerve (optic atrophy)

Date of Report

Jun 17, 2019


The participant was delayed meeting some of his developmental milestones. He did not walk independently until 17 months and said his first word at 2 years old. Academic testing revealed borderline intellectual disability (IQ of 73). He received speech therapy and was able to speak more clearly around age 6. He has since been diagnosed with a central auditory processing disorder.

At age 4-5, the participant began to experience lower limb pain that became progressively worse over time. After developing severe headaches at age 8, he was referred for brain imaging, which revealed an enlarged space in the back of the brain (prominence of the retrocerebellar space). This difference can be seen in unaffected individuals. The participant also has several eye differences (optic atrophy, myopic astigmatism, strabismus).

Symptoms / Signs
  • Delayed gross motor development
  • Delayed speech and language development
  • Learning disability (central auditory processing disorder)
  • Borderline intellectual disability
  • Enlarged space in the back of the brain – can be seen in unaffected individuals (prominence of the retrocerebellar space)
  • Headache
  • Damage to the optic nerve (optic atrophy)
  • Crossed eye (strabismus)
  • Nearsighted (myopic) astigmatism
  • Inability to completely empty bladder (urinary retention)
  • Chronic constipation
  • Lower limb pain (bilateral)
  • Increased stiffness of the back of the heel (Achilles tendon contracture)
  • Exercise intolerance
  • Heat intolerance
  • A few vesicular changes in the left eye, which could represent a mild endothelial dystrophy
Current Treatments
  • Benefiber, Bisacodyl, Miralax, Magnesium oxide – constipation
  • Coenzyme Q10
  • Gabapentin
  • Melatonin
  • Nexium
Prior Treatments
  • Optic nerve blocks – headaches
Considered treatments
Previously Considered Diagnoses
  • Limb girdle muscular dystrophy
  • Lyme disease
  • Metabolic condition
  • Microdeletion/duplication condition
  • Mitochondrial disorder
Other Photographs
Genetic Variants of Interest

If this participant sounds like you or someone you know, please contact us!


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